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本文摘要:HONG KONG — Shen Changxiang, who once supervised the cybersecurity of Chinas strategic missile arsenal and spearheaded computer-security research for the navy, has warned of the perils of his countrys reliance on American technology.香港——沈昌祥曾多次主管过中国战略导弹武器库的网络安全,并联合为海军积极开展了计算机安全研究。

HONG KONG — Shen Changxiang, who once supervised the cybersecurity of Chinas strategic missile arsenal and spearheaded computer-security research for the navy, has warned of the perils of his countrys reliance on American technology.香港——沈昌祥曾多次主管过中国战略导弹武器库的网络安全,并联合为海军积极开展了计算机安全研究。他仍然警告说道,中国对美国技术的倚赖很危险性。Yet in December, the 74-year-old former military engineer, one of Chinas top-ranking cyberofficials, quietly started working with a company synonymous with American technological prowess: IBM. Shens task is to help a little-known Chinese company absorb and build upon key technologies licensed by IBM, according to a statement posted on a Beijing government website.然而,在去年12月,这位74岁的前军方工程师、中国最高级别的网络官员之一,悄悄开始与一家代表美国科技实力的公司进行合作。


In the past 16 months, IBM has agreed — and received permission under U.S. export laws — to provide the Beijing company, Teamsun, with a partial blueprint of its higher-end servers and the software that runs on them, according to IBM announcements and filings from Teamsun. As the chief scientist overseeing the IBM project on behalf of the Chinese government, Shen is helping Teamsun — and, in turn, China — develop a full supply chain of computers and software atop IBMs technology.IBM的声明和这家取名为华胜天成的北京公司的备案资料表明,在过去16个月中,IBM早已表示同意——并根据美国出口法律取得了许可——为华胜天成获取高端服务器的部分蓝图以及在这些服务器上运营的软件。作为代表中国政府监管IBM项目的首席科学家,沈昌祥正在协助华胜天成——也就是协助中国——在IBM技术之上研发计算机和软件的原始供应链。

The goal is to create a domestic tech industry that in the long run will no longer need to buy U.S. products, thus avoiding security concerns.其目标是打造出中国本土的高科技产业,让中国在远期需要再行出售美国的产品,以免安全性之虞。What IBM is doing in China is no different from what the company is doing elsewhere. Yet IBMs activities in China have become sensitive as they now run into efforts by the Obama administration to persuade Beijing to drop new measures requiring U.S. companies to hand over technology in exchange for market access.IBM在中国做到的事情,和该公司在其他地方做到的并无二致。然而,IBM在中国的活动显得极为脆弱,因为北京无意实施一些拒绝美国公司用技术交换条件市场准入资格的新举措,而目前奥巴马政府正在希望劝说北京退出这些措施。

Critics say IBM is caving in to Chinese demands, placing short-term business gains ahead of longer-term political and trade issues. IBMs actions may spur other U.S. companies to break ranks and also submit to the new Chinese regulations, out of concern that IBM will get advantages by cooperating with the country.抨击人士说道,IBM向中国的拒绝屈服,把短期业务的收益置放了长年的政治和贸易问题之上。看见IBM采行这样的行动,其他美国公司可能会担忧它通过与中国合作占到得优势,从而仍然与其同行并肩作战,也向中国的新法规屈服。“People do feel angry about what appears to be an accommodation with the Chinese,” said James A. Lewis, an analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. “And you have to kind of expect that, particularly at a time when you have the whole U.S. government ginned up to push the Chinese on this.”“人们显然深感气愤,因为这或许是在纵容中国人,”政策机构国际战略研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)分析师詹姆斯·A·刘易斯(James A. Lewis)说道。


“你认同也胜过不会是那样,特别是在是在这个关口,整个美国政府正在希望劝说中国人的时候。”IBM said it was simply being open with licensing technologies as part of a global program called Open Power. Open Power, which IBM initiated in 2013, has 120 members worldwide, including Google and Samsung Electronics. Fewer than 20 are from China, IBM said. The point of the program is to provide base technology that can be enhanced by licensees worldwide and spur global partnerships and business opportunities, the company added.IBM回应,它不过是在根据其Open Power全球计划许可技术而已。

IBM在2013年创办的Open Power计划在全球享有120个成员,其中还包括谷歌和三星。来自中国的成员将近20个,IBM说道。该计划的重点一是获取基础技术,而全球各地取得许可的机构可以强化这些技术,二是推展全球合作伙伴关系和商业机会,该公司称之为。

“Our Open Power partners in China are getting access to the same technology that we make available to all Open Power members around the world,” Edward Barbini, a spokesman, wrote in an email. “Weve been very transparent with all our stakeholders on this strategy, including the Obama administration, about our plans to expand both the Open Power community and IBMs technology partnerships around the world.”“我们在中国的Open Power合作伙伴取得的技术,和我们获取给世界各地所有Open Power成员的技术是一样的,”IBM发言人爱德华·巴比尼(Edward Barbini)在电邮中写到。“关于我们有怎样的计划,来不断扩大Open Power社区以及IBM在世界各地的技术合作伙伴关系,我们对于还包括奥巴马政府在内的所有利益相关者仍然都十分半透明。

”In a recent interview posted on Teamsuns website, Huang Hua, a vice president, said the companys new capabilities would help it better address security concerns of local Chinese companies. Calling a movement in China to replace crucial high-end technology from IBM, Oracle and EMC an “opportunity,” Huang said Teamsuns strategy to “absorb and then innovate” would enable it to eliminate the capability gap between Chinese and U.S. companies and create products that could replace those sold by firms in the United States.在华胜天成网站上的一次近期专访中,副总裁黄华回应,该公司新的取得的能力将协助中国本土企业更加好地解决安全性问题。他说道,中国替代来自IBM、甲骨文(Oracle)和EMC的关键高端技术的希望是一个“机会”,华胜天成的战略是“再行吸取、再行创意”,这可以增大中国和美国公司在能力上的差距,并发售一些产品,来替代美国公司销售的产品。

Language about replacing IBM, Oracle and EMC was removed from the site after Teamsun and IBM were contacted for this article. Teamsun declined to be interviewed about the IBM project, and an assistant declined to make Shen available for comment.在就这篇文章认识了华胜天成和IBM之后,关于替代IBM、甲骨文和EMC的词句就从该网站上被移除了。华胜天成拒绝接受就IBM项目拒绝接受专访。一个助理也拒绝接受联系沈昌祥对此事置评。

IBM declined to comment on Shen because he is not an IBM employee. A spokesman with the U.S. trade representative declined to comment on IBMs strategy in China.IBM称之为沈昌祥非该公司员工,拒绝接受对他置评。美国贸易代表发言人拒绝接受就IBM在中国的策略置评。IBM has many business projects in China. The company has also agreed to license the advanced chip technology that works as the brain of the servers to a separate Chinese company, Suzhou PowerCore. And IBM says it has spoken to clients about letting them build local encryption over its z13 mainframe computer, which could help in China, where a proposed anti-terror law requires domestic companies to provide encryption keys or use local Chinese encryption standards.IBM在中国积极开展了很多商业项目。




IBMs cooperation with Teamsun and Suzhou PowerCore through Open Power is part of the companys strategic shift away from its traditional hardware, software and services businesses to new cloud, data and mobile offerings. IBM, which reports quarterly earnings on Monday, has been grappling with declining revenue as it makes that transition.IBM通过Open Power与华胜天成和中晟宏芯进行的合作,是它从传统硬件、软件和服务业务战略转移到新兴的云、数据和移动服务的一部分。该公司在这个过渡性中面对着艰苦的营收下降问题。IBM不会在周一发布上季度财报。Both the server and chip technology IBM is licensing in China are widely used by banks in the country. In the fourth quarter, IBM generated $4.9 billion in revenue, or 20 percent of the total, from Asia; it does not break out China sales.IBM在中国许可的服务器和芯片技术,在中国的银行系统被普遍用于。

去年第四季度,IBM从亚洲取得了49亿美元的营收,占到其总营收的20%;该公司没发布中国的明确销售额。“You have Chinese policy interests, U.S. policy interests and IBM policy interests; realistically, your hope of aligning these is not all that high,” said Willy C. Shih, a professor of technology and operations management at Harvard Business School. “I think its a tough call for IBM.”“你面对着中国的政策利益、美国的政策利益和IBM的政策利益;现实地说道,让这些利益协调一致的期望并不大,“哈佛商学院技术和运营管理教授史兆威(Willy C. Shih)说道。

“我指出对于IBM而言,这是个艰难的要求。”While Beijing has long pushed indigenous innovation policies designed to foster a domestic tech industry, the disclosures in 2013 of online spying efforts by the United States made by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden gave the more hawkish officials in China the evidence they needed to expedite plans to wean sensitive industries, like banking and energy, off foreign technology.长期以来,北京仍然前进自主创新政策,意欲增进国内的高新技术产业。在2013年,美国前国家安全局承包商雇员爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden)在网上透露了美国的监控活动之后,中国的强硬派官员由此取得了他们必须的证据,来加快步伐,以暂停银行、能源等脆弱行业对国外技术的倚赖。

One new Chinese law, which called for disclosure of source code of products sold to banks, was suspended by the government this month. But analysts say Beijing is likely to continue making similar demands in different ways.中国的一项新的法律拒绝透露出售给银行的产品的源代码,本月被政府作罢实行。但分析师说道,北京很有可能之后以有所不同的方式明确提出类似于拒绝。

Shen has been thinking about pushing U.S. tech companies out of China for a while. In 2009, he warned of global communications surveillance by the United States in an essay posted on the website of Chinas Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.一段时间以来,沈昌祥仍然在思维将美国高科技公司吸管中国的方法。2009年,他在中国工业部和信息化部网站上公布的一篇文章警告称之为,美国在对全球通信展开监控。In a speech in September at the China Internet Security Conference in Beijing, Shen said expansion of the U.S. militarys online attack and defense capabilities made the Internet the fifth strategic front for the United States, after land, air, ocean and space.去年9月,在北京中国互联网安全大会上的一个演说中,沈昌祥回应,美军在网络攻击和防卫上能力的强化,使得互联网早已沦为美国在陆海空天之后的第五大主权领域空间。

He added, according to state-run media, “That poses a severe challenge to the cybersecurity of China, and we should actively respond, accelerate the building of our cybersecure system and safeguard our cybersecurity and state sovereignty.”官方媒体资料表明,他还说道,“对我国的网络安全明确提出了不利的挑战,应当大力应付,减缓建设网络安全的保障体系,保卫网络安全的空间和国家主权。



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